One of the most successful singers of the twentieth century. Ella Fitzgerald has made several different styles her own. She was born in Virginia but was brought up in an orphanage in Yonkers, New York. Chick Webb spotted her in an amateur competition when she was sixteen. He engaged her to sing with his band., and when he died in 1939 she took over.
Unlike Bessic Smith. Ella Fizgerald taught herself the sentimental music so popular in the 1930'5 - songs like "My Heart Belongs to Daddy"-and her recordings became best - sellers. During the 1940'5 she developed her own "scat singing" - a breathless. nonsenses - syllable style-for songs like "Flying Home" and "Lady Be Good."
Ella Fitzgerald was the perfect musical partner for her friend, the trumpeter Louis Armstrong, matching him in warmth and artistry. "I just like music, period." she has said. "To me, it's a story There's only one thing better than singing… it's more singing."
1.Where did Fitzqerald spend most of her childhood?
(C) New York City
2.Who was the first to discover Ella Fitzgerald's talent?
(A) Fitzgerald's father
(B) Louis Armstrong
(C) Bessie Smith
(D) Chick Webb
3.The word "spotted" (line 3) means
(C) in the spotlight
(D) of different colors
4.When Fitzgerald was sixteen, Chick Webb asked her to
(A) marry him
(B) hire him
(C) take over his band
(D) perform with his band
5.According to the passage. Bessie Smith was a
(B) music teacher
(C) band leader
6.Which of the following might be used in "scat singing" as described in the passage9
(A) Hai-di. . .hai-di. . .hai-di. ..ho
(B) Home, home, home, I'm going home
(C) Golly! Wow! We're flying now!
(D) Lady. be good
7.What does the passage imply about Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong?
(A) They were the originators of "scat singing
(B) They played the same musical instrumonts.
(C) They performed well together
(D) They were a married couple.
8.The "friend" referred to in line 9 is
(A) Ella Fitzgerald
(B) Louis Armstrong
(C) Bessie Smith
(C) Chick Webb
In the late sixteenth century the glass lathe was introduced, making it possible to grind several lenses at once and also to produce-as objects of curiosity-powerful, thick concave lenses.
Thin concave lenses had been used for more than a century, but thick concave lenses were now sold to people caught up with painting or visual illusions of perspective, who used them as "perspective glasses." Once the new lens became available, it suddenly became possible to see a rather interesting effect by combining two lenses. We now know that there are many different things that can be done with a pair of lenses. Both the Keplerian telescope and the microscope use combinations of perfectly focused convex lenses. The Galilean type of telescope began with the idea that as soon as you hold a powerful concave lens to the eye and a simple weak convex lens at arm' 5 length, the clock in the church tower jumps out at you. Many artisans from around the world enjoyed that illusion in the early 1600's, but it was two lens grinders from Middelburg in the Low Countries who first decided to market the telescope as a military invention, a device for spying on enemy armies. In fact, the telescope's narrow field of vision made it an unlikely spying device - but the two lens grinders thought they could sell it anyway. When the telescope was used militarily centuries later, it was used, not for spying, but for signaling.
1.Which of the following is the main topic of this passage?
(A) Grass lathes
(B) Innovative signaling equipment
(C) Early uses of lenses
(D) Galileo and Kepier
2.According to the passage the invention of the glass lathe made it possible to produce the first
(A) thin concave lenses
(B) thick concave lenses
(B) thin convex lenses
(C) thick convex lenses
3.The passage indicates that convex lenses in combination were used in
(A) the Keplerican telescope and the microscope
(B) microscopes and perspective glasses
(C) perspective glasses and signaling
(D) the military telescope and the Keplerian telescope
4.The clause "the clock in the church tower jumps out at you" in lines II – 12
mentioned to illustrate the effect of a
(A) perspective glass
(C) spying device
(D) Kepierian telescope
5. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the telescope developed in Middelburg?
(A) It was made without grinding lenses.
(B) It proved to Le valuable for military spying.
(C) Clockmakers around the world copied many of its features.
(D) Initial attempts at marketing it were not very successful.
The term "satellite city is used to describe the relationship between a large city and neighboring smaller cities and towns that are economically dependent upon it. Satellite cities may be collection and distribution points in the commercial linkages of a trading metropolis, or they may be manufacturing or mining centers existing with one - industry economics as the creatures of some nearby center. This latter form is what is generally meant when one uses the term "satellite city." Taken in this sense, nineteenth - century Chicopee and Lowell, Massachusetts, were satellites of Boston. Both were mill towns created by Boston investors to serve the economy of that New England metropolis. Located on cheap land along water - power sites in the midst of a farming region that could supply ample labor, they were satellites in the fullest sense of the term. Pullman, Illinois, and Gary, Indiana, were likewise one - industry towns created in conjunction with the much broader economy of nearby Chicago. Such places, as Vera Schlakman and Stanley Buder have pointed out in their excellent urban biographies, had a one-dimensional quality, a paucity of social vigor. These cities could not stand alone; they were in a sense colonies of a multifunctional mother city.
1. Which of the following is characteristic of a satellite city?
(A) It is a self - sufficient community.
(B) It offers cheap land to people.
(C) It tends to concentrate on a single product.
(D) It lies within a space station orbiting Earth.
2. According to the passage Chicopee and Lowell were ideal locations for the development of towns because they had
(A) fully developed electric power plants
(B) an adequate number of workers
(C) farmland that would not be flooded
(D) extremely rich investors
3.The author describes each of the following as being economically dependent on another city
(A) Chicopee, Massachusetts
(B) Lowell, Massachusetts
(C) Pullman, Illinois
(D) Chicago, Illinois
4. It can be inferred from the passage that Vera Schlakman and Stanley Buder are
(C) social workers
(D) factory workers
5. It can be inferred from the passage that Vera Sohlakman and Stanley Buder would describe the economics of towns like Puliman and Gary as
Three years of research at an abandoned coal mine in Argonne Illinois, have resulted in findings that scientists believe can help reclaim thousands of mine disposal sites that scar the coal-rich regions of the United States. In a pilot reclamation protect, they tested the growth possibilities of eight species of plants in the old mine's huge pile of acidic and toxic wastes. The researchers applied ground limestone, put a thin layer of topsoil on it, and sowed the plant seeds on the refuse, consisting of waste coal, rock, clay, and mining debris. Initially. the plots were dominated by invading annual weeds, but in the second and third growing seasons desirable grasses and other plants became well-established The scientists' findings are believed to be the first step toward restoring some 22, 500 acres of coal refuse sites in Illinois and thousands of acres in other states.
1. What is the main topic of the passage.
(A) Abandoned coal mines
(B) Reclamation of a mine disposal site
(C) New species of plants
(D) Regions where coal has caused scars
2. According to the passage, what have scientists been testing?
(A) How to locate abandoned mines
(B) The disposal of toxic wastes
(C) The growth potential of certain plants
(D) How to convert refuse into useable energy
3. How many kinds of plants did the scientists test?
4. According to the passage. what did researchers do to prepare the area.
(A) They ground up the rocks
(B) They added some topsoil.
(C) They added fertilizer
(D). They refused to do anything..
5. What happened during the first year of the study
(A)The grasses became well established.
(B)Weeds took over the area.
(C)The soil became too acidic.
(D)Plants were unable to grow.
6. It can be inferred from the passage that in the United States, abandoned coal mines exist
(A) primarily in Illinois
(B) in limited numbers
(C) in several states
(D)near operational mines
7 It can be inferred from the passage that widespread applications of the scientists' findings should lead to
(A) less coal being mined
(B) new varieties of grasses
(C) more refuse sites
(D)less barren land
When the persuading and the planning for the Western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the danoerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. The men who took Ii on comprised the most cosmopolitan work crew in American history. They included Civil War veteran and freed slaves, Irish and German immigrants. Mormons and atheists. Shoshonis. Palutes, Washos. and Chinese.
At the peak of their labors, the work crews laid two to five miles of track a day. The men filled ravines. ran spidery trestles across rivers and valleys, and punched holes through mountains. And they did alt these jobs largely by their own muscle power. Flaicars carried rails to within half a mile of the railhead; there the iron was loaded onto carts. An eyewitness described the procedure: 'A light car, drawn by a single horse, gallops up to the front with its load of rails. Two men seize the end of a rail and start forward. the rest of the gang taling hold by twos Until it is clear of the car. They come forward at a run. At the word of command. the rail is dropped in its place. right side up Less than thirty seconds to a rail for each gang. and so four rails go down to the minute.',
1. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage9
(A)An Eyewitness Report
(B)A Difficult Task
(C)The Hiring of a Construction Crew
(D)The Railroad and the Civil War
2. According to the passage, in addition to laying railroad track, the work crew dId which of the following?
(A) Climbed over mountain peaks.
(B) Planned railroads.
(C) Caught horses.
(D) Made tunnels.
3.In line 8, the word "they" refers to
4. Which of the following phrases could be substituted for the phrase "clear of" (line 12)without changing the meaning of the sentence?
(A) put through
(B) visible to
(C) away from
(D.) open to
5. According to the passage. how many rails could be laid in a minute?
Passage 1: BDADAACB
Passage 2: CBABD
Passage 3: CBDAB
Passage 5: BDACB